Trias Talents Opinion丨How to Treat the Pain in Blockchain Transaction Efficiency?

There are some talents who are changing the world a little bit every day. They are always believed in technology but never limited by itself. They are passionate and optimistic about the future but never satisfied with what they have achieved.

Chen Kai, serve as Trias Senior Developer, graduated from University of Science and Technology of China with Master Degree. With rich service and high concurrent development experience, he had been worked in China Aerospace and Yonyou Group for many years. Particularly, the NIO system developed by him in Yonyou Group has realized multi-million TPS access hybrid business management platform.

In addition, Chen Kai has participated in the development of TPM trusted computing service platform with completely autonomous and controllable, and has a profound insight into the relevant projects of Ethereum and Eos.

What is the world likes in their eyes? Starting today, we will begin to uncover for you the secrets that you never heard of.

As we all know, project efficiency that restricting blockchain commercial landing is one of the most difficult bottlenecks. The daily network congestion and high fees of bitcoin totally deviate from Satoshi Nakamoto original idea. In order to improve the efficiency of trading, people have come up with a variety of ways, what approach is feasible?

The following is part of the sharing brought by Chen Kai.

1. Sharding Technology Background

Currently, blockchain technology currently confronted with scalability problems, and everyone is trying to increase TPS but not much. In the case of Bitcoin and Ethereum, Bitcoin can do achieve 7 TPS while 15 TPS in Ethereum.

Due to TPS concurrency too low, it will lead to high transaction costs, long confirmation time and poor scalability. In the long run, the community may be divided, permanent divergence phenomenon become more normal, all of that has a huge adverse impact on the cryptocurrency industry. For example, the recent BCH permanent divergence incident led to a fall in market value across the board.

2. Is sharding Technology a life-saving straw?

In order to solve these problems, blockchain developers have proposed many schemes, such as increasing block size, off-chain transactions, directed acyclic graph, sharding and so on. Theoretically, these methods are feasible. In today’s article mainly introduces the sharding technology.

Sharding technology stems from the traditional database, which splits a large database into multiple fragments and deploys them to different servers. But in blockchain, the entire network nodes are divided into many small networks, each network running a smaller range of consensus protocol. The transaction is split into different network processes to let a large number of verification can be processed in parallel.

Simply put, sharding technology is the division of large tasks into small one that can be processed in parallel to improve the performance of the entire chain.

In my opinion, it is a better solution to solve the problem. For example, Ethereum was used to put it into practice, unfortunately, limited by the consensus mechanism and other factors, until now Ethereum has not put this matter into effect.

3. My Sharding Technology

Main chain, the method I’ve been working on recently. It mainly has registration and verification functions. Registration function mainly focus on nodes, which will be added to the sharding through the corresponding algorithm.

And verification function centered on their own transaction information from different sharding. It will be required main chain verification passes, so it can be confirmed packaging.

At present, the main chain adopts the polling system. By calculating the trusted state of all the nodes, a verifier is selected from the trusted nodes. In a certain period of time, the verifier obtains the shard head information that needs to be verified from the queue to be verified.

When verification period ends, the verifier returns verification information and packages the its transaction into blocks, and following broadcasts updating status. Only a few nodes with high trust values can act as verifier. Of course, they get more incentive to encourage them.

Sharding technology supports for a variety of types of fragmented system, storage and management of part of the user’s state data is the executor of the contract. The decision maker of contract execution is Proposer, Attester and Main chain.

Obviously, Off-chain mainly supports offline fast transaction, it means user may lock the partial account amount through the chain with encryption means carries on the transaction. When a user applies to an offline transaction, it will automatically synchronize the offline transaction information.

Each sharding has transaction information that Proposer uses to collect information. Sharding information includes Header and transaction information, which proposer constructs into a shard blockshard block structure.

Attester (can be called a verifier), typically held by a node with a very high degree of trust, is primarily used to verify the transaction in the shard block and to vote for signatures. To avoid an excessive number of malicious nodes, Attester is allocated to a different sharding during a random interval of time.

After receiving the task of verifying sharding, the Attester starts to verify the shard blocks collected by the proposer and reaching the BFT consensus, it can produce the main block content and then broadcast to its waiting queue. If any attester is found to have committed any wrongdoing during this period, it will be disqualified immediately and the new verifier will be re-selected.

4. The future of sharding technology

The sharding technology is very difficult, and most projects are still far away from commercial applications. Take Ethereum as an example, sharding technology has been iteratively updated, the online time has been delayed again and again.

From the project landing view, I think we can use DAG as a breakthrough, combined with our existing trusted computing technology, according to the trusted value to select a certain number of nodes, through these nodes to accelerate the speed of DAG validation and solve problems.

I think, sharding technology is still in its infancy at present because of the impetuous market, many entrepreneurs blindly join in the sharding business simply blindly pursue high TPS, but ignore security and other issues.

On the contrary, it is put off the development of technology and still have a long way to go.

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